New discoveries in the palm oil swamp of Peru in Peru

Damaged soil areas. Photo by: Kristell Hergoualc’h / CIFOR

Recent research on a series of “major” findings to understand greenhouse gas emissions and land degradation in the Palm Petroleum swamp in the Peruvian Pastaza-Maranon basin.

The supreme petroleum oil palm swamp Morita flexuosa, Store large amounts of carbon. Evolution allows organic matter to slowly decompose and accumulate in the soil for thousands of years. However, this ecosystem is still not fully understood and explored. A.D. Between 2015 and 2018, a multidisciplinary research team led by CIFOR-ICRAF – and a joint team from the Amazon Research Institute (IIAP) in Peru – pioneered the first long-term. Research on Soil Nitrogen Oxide Flows (N2O) and methane (CH4) In the Amazon Palm Swamp in Peru.

This study is the first to examine how GHG emissions vary at different levels of deforestation.

“Our research provides the necessary information for the country (Peru) to report emissions from Petland,” said Cristor Hergowalk, chief researcher and scientist at CIFOR-ICRAF. “Estimates are local and strong that policymakers and governments can use in national reports. Petland’s original releases, to date, are based on IPCC guidelines, which are based on Petland data from Southeast Asia.

Non-sustainable palm oil collection leads to deforestation

One of the main causes of oil swamps in the swamps is the unsustainable harvest of agave. This fruit is made from palms. M. flexuosa andIt is the main ingredient in traditional drinks and recipes. Since the fruit is on a tree, it is often easier to harvest the fruit by cutting down the tree. Deforestation has a measurable effect on the terrain.

Up to 30 percent of the palm oil swamps have fallen sharply, 42 percent are in the middle, and 27 percent are in the low. This was revealed in a 2017 study of 350,000 hectares in Peru. Damage can affect the humidity ratio (Funny) Natural mosaic petal swamp – a high place built of structures under the palm – and holes (Empty) – The lowest point is flooded between them. In a recent issue, Hergoualc’h and the team argued that GHG emissions could be affected by continuous changes at the level of the micro-topography site, as well as by the combination of micro-scale and tree density.

“In Indonesia, the ratio Funny With Empty 50 ፡ 50 around 50, ”said Hergoualc’h. “In our study, which helped to compute this ratio in South America, Pete swamp oil wells cover more than 80 percent of the total surface area. .

Linking GHG emissions to erosion and other environmental factors.

For three years, the research team has studied three areas that represent undeveloped areas, moderately damaged areas, and highly developed areas. Measure resistant nitrogen oxide and methane flows with environmental conditions such as temperature, water depth (WTPS) and groundwater permeability (WFPS).

According to research results, although the low level leads to changes in GHG emissions in the micro scale, there is no change in the macro balance because it is very small. However, the water level played a major role in the GHG flow in all three areas.

Soil and WT and WFT levels have a significant effect on nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, the research team found a strong link between methane emissions and rainfall: more rain leads to higher methane emissions. This is because the lack of oxygen in palm oil swamps causes microbes to produce more methane than they do.

Satellite imagery shows that South American soils have high methane emissions in tropical Southeast Asia. However, the correlation between rainfall and methane found in this study suggests that long-term rainfall forecasts are expected in this part of South America. Therefore, in research studies, oil palm swamps are experiencing an increase in long-term emissions.

“As a result of global warming, methane emissions are a global concern,” says Hergowalch. “We still don’t have much information for Amazon, but our study shows that increased rainfall due to climate change may be another factor in methane emissions.”

Scientists have also found that nitrogen oxides are high in Peruvian palm swamps, even in flood-prone areas. In general, we expect the amount of oxygen in the swamp to decrease and become nitrogen oxides N.2And leads to lower emissions.

However, Hergoualc’h explains that the release of nitrogen oxide in Petland is the opposite. The study found that the emissions of the two gases and their correlation with the surface of the water are important to improve GHG geochemical modeling.

in the future

While Hergoualc’h emphasizes that the findings of this study may not represent all areas of the Amazon, this effort is the first step in understanding Amazon’s contribution to mitigating or exacerbating climate change.

“We are working with the Peruvian government because they want to include soils in the National Contribution Index (NDC),” Hergowalk said. If they have a sustainable forest management plan, they want to know how much they will reduce GHG emissions.

The contextual knowledge provided by such research will help to strengthen sustainable policy transitions nationally and internationally.

Representatives of the Peruvian Ministry of Environment at COP26 in Glasgow have increased opportunities for private investment in Peruvian Aguales, which are expected to enhance sustainable palm harvesting practices.

Such multifaceted opportunities bring together policymakers, local communities, companies and scientists to be key to sustainable value chain development and land reclamation.

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